Folic acid is a vitamin that is involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. Folic acid is converted into tetrahydrofolate (THF), which is a coenzyme that carries one-carbon units for various metabolic reactions.
One of these reactions is the synthesis of NAD, a coenzyme that is essential for many cellular processes. NAD is synthesized from nicotinate, also known as niacin or vitamin B3, by the enzyme nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT). NAPRT catalyzes the transfer of a ribose phosphate group from 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to nicotinate, forming nicotinate mononucleotide (NMN), which is then converted into NAD by other enzymes.
Folic acid restores NAPRT activity by providing THF, which is required for the synthesis of PRPP from ribose 5-phosphate. PRPP is the substrate for NAPRT and other enzymes that synthesize nucleotides and nucleic acids. Therefore, folic acid helps to maintain adequate levels of NAD and other nucleotides in the cell.
Folic acid restores NAPRT activity by providing THF, which is required for the synthesis of PRPP from ribose 5-phosphate. PRPP is the substrate for NAPRT.
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